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Generating Proto File For Bangdream 4.0.0 (V2)

You can check this post for some background. BangDream now use “on demand” delivery and I can get only arm64 blobs now. They are so different with old armv7 instrcutions so I have to rewrite some code to get correct tag numbers.

At first, use latest il2cppdumper, or you may have some errors when running the script. I tried immediately with my old script, and all tag numbers are reported None. It’s pretty annoying but it should have something to do with new instructions of arm64 (aarch64). Now let’s check what happend.

Disassembly

Like in armv7, protobuf-net codes are also compiled into two kinds of instructions. Use UserAuthRequest as an example. userId is compiled into:

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08 04 40 F9 E1 03 00 32 E2 03 1F AA 00 01 40 F9 6D 70 78 14

With a online disassembler you can get following instructions:

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0x0000000000000000:  08 04 40 F9    ldr x8, [x0, #8]
0x0000000000000004: E1 03 00 32 orr w1, wzr, #1
0x0000000000000008: E2 03 1F AA mov x2, xzr
0x000000000000000c: 00 01 40 F9 ldr x0, [x8]
0x0000000000000010: 6D 70 78 14 b #0x1e1c1c4

and attestationErrorMsg is encoded as:

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F3 0F 1E F8 FD 7B 01 A9 FD 43 00 91 08 04 40 F9 21 01 80 52 ...

and processed by disassembler:

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0x0000000000000000:  F3 0F 1E F8    str  x19, [sp, #-0x20]!
0x0000000000000004: FD 7B 01 A9 stp x29, x30, [sp, #0x10]
0x0000000000000008: FD 43 00 91 add x29, sp, #0x10
0x000000000000000c: 08 04 40 F9 ldr x8, [x0, #8]
0x0000000000000010: 21 01 80 52 movz w1, #0x9

The most important instructions are:

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E1 03 00 32    orr w1, wzr, #1
# or
21 01 80 52 movz w1, #0x9

Instruction Encoding

But how are the immediate encoded? By checking the reference and the instruction encoding I figured out that MOVZ use direct immediate and ORR use bitmask immediate. Although they are aarch64 instructions, both of them use 32 bit immediate.

The direct immediate is pretty direct, just read the immediate and it’s finished:

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x10x 0010 1xxi iiii iiii iiii iiid dddd

But how about bitmask immediate? They are like the rotating encoding of immediate in armv7 but have some different. ORR immediate instruction looks like this:

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x01x 0010 0Nii iiii iiii iinn nnnd dddd

N together with first x (as known as sf) refers to bit length (sf==0 AND N==0 => 32bit or sf==1 => 64bit), first six binary digits of immediate are immr and last six binary digits of immediate are imms. You can find the code to decode bitmask immediate in the arm official reference:

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// DecodeBitMasks()
// ================
// Decode AArch64 bitfield and logical immediate masks which use a similar encoding structure

(bits(M), bits(M)) DecodeBitMasks(bit immN, bits(6) imms, bits(6) immr, boolean immediate)
bits(M) tmask, wmask;
bits(6) levels;

// Compute log2 of element size
// 2^len must be in range [2, M]
len = HighestSetBit(immN:NOT(imms));
if len < 1 then UNDEFINED;
assert M >= (1 << len);

// Determine S, R and S - R parameters
levels = ZeroExtend(Ones(len), 6);

// For logical immediates an all-ones value of S is reserved
// since it would generate a useless all-ones result (many times)
if immediate && (imms AND levels) == levels then UNDEFINED;

S = UInt(imms AND levels);
R = UInt(immr AND levels);
diff = S - R; // 6-bit subtract with borrow
esize = 1 << len;
d = UInt(diff1:0>);

welem = ZeroExtend(Ones(S + 1), esize);
telem = ZeroExtend(Ones(d + 1), esize);
wmask = Replicate(ROR(welem, R));
tmask = Replicate(telem);

return (wmask, tmask);

But it’s pretty hard to understand. LLVM gives code which is way more clear:

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static inline uint64_t decodeLogicalImmediate(uint64_t val, unsigned regSize) {
// Extract the N, imms, and immr fields.
unsigned N = (val >> 12) & 1;
unsigned immr = (val >> 6) & 0x3f;
unsigned imms = val & 0x3f;

assert((regSize == 64 || N == 0) && "undefined logical immediate encoding");
int len = 31 - countLeadingZeros((N << 6) | (~imms & 0x3f));
assert(len >= 0 && "undefined logical immediate encoding");
unsigned size = (1 << len);
unsigned R = immr & (size - 1);
unsigned S = imms & (size - 1);
assert(S != size - 1 && "undefined logical immediate encoding");
uint64_t pattern = (1ULL << (S + 1)) - 1;
for (unsigned i = 0; i < R; ++i)
pattern = ror(pattern, size);

// Replicate the pattern to fill the regSize.
while (size != regSize) {
pattern |= (pattern << size);
size *= 2;
}
return pattern;
}

OK we can now rewrite our code to get correct tag number.

New getTag Function

Attention that in following code we use Little-Endian. In our case, N and sf always equal to 0 so we don’t have to care about length, it’s fixed to 32 bits.

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def getTag(address):
offset = address & 0xFFFFFFFF

prog.seek(offset)
inst = prog.read(4)
inst = int.from_bytes(inst, byteorder='little', signed=False)
if inst == 0xf9400408:
prog.seek(offset + 4)
inst = int.from_bytes(prog.read(4), 'little', signed=False)
elif inst == 0xf81e0ff3:
prog.seek(offset + 16)
inst = int.from_bytes(prog.read(4), 'little', signed=False)
else:
print(hex(inst), hex(address))
return None
if inst >> 24 == 0x52:
return (inst >> 5) & 0xFFFF
elif inst >> 24 == 0x32:
retnum = (inst >> 8) & 0xFFFF
immr = (retnum >> 8) & 0x3F
imms = (retnum >> 2) & 0x3F
clz = lambda x: "{:032b}".format(x).index("1")
_len = 31 - clz((0 << 6) | (~imms & 0x3F))
_size = 1 << _len
R = immr & (_size - 1)
S = imms & (_size - 1)
ret = (1 << (S+1)) - 1
for i in range(immr):
ret = rotr(ret, 32)
return ret

For whole code please see this gist.

Happy hacking!